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With this post, we’ll begin looking at the duties and responsibilities commercial airline crews undertake prior to beginning each flight. As you’ve probably guessed, airline personnel are responsible for numerous tasks before a given flight can actually leave the gate. One of the first steps airline pilots take is to look over the flight’s paperwork. The main document airline crews consider is known as the Flight Release.

The Flight Release, also known as the Dispatch Release or simply, “The Release,” is the master plan or blueprint for the entire flight leg. This document is prepared by the airline’s dispatch department and transmitted to the crew at their departure airport. The release contains vital information on the route, weather, fuel requirements, maintenance/equipment, and any other information pertinent to the flight. The Pilot in Command (the Captain) must determine if, based on the info in the release, the proposed flight can be completed both legally and safely. If everything appears satisfactory, the captain signs both copies of the release and leaves the station copy with gate personnel at the departure airport. The crew retains the other copy for use during the flight.

Flight Plan

A major part of the release is the flight plan section. This portion outlines the proposed route of flight, cruise altitude, alternate airport(s) (if necessary/requested), weather reports & forecasts, temporary flight restrictions (if applicable), pertinent Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs), and any other relevant data. From this information, the crew is alerted to possible adverse weather, probable air traffic control (ATC) routings, estimated trip duration, and other reasonably foreseeable information. Though helpful for planning, routing and altitude are ALWAYS subject to change, particularly in busy airspace and during bad weather. In such instances, the crew can expect to receive ATC instructions, while they may also request preferred routing/altitudes.

Fuel Requirements

The fuel section is an extremely important part of the release. This section lets the crew know how much fuel they need in order to legally depart. This specified minimum includes fuel for engine start, taxi, takeoff/climb, cruise, descent, landing, and taxi to the gate. If alternate airports are required, the necessary fuel to fly those routes is included. In addition, all flights are required to carry additional fuel (usually at least 45 minutes’ worth) as a cushion for possible delays. At times, flights may choose to depart with more fuel than is legally required. However, such practices aren’t common, as airlines prefer the increased performance & payload capacity afforded by carrying only the necessary fuel.

If the captain notes that the aircraft is underfueled, (s)he must request & receive enough additional fuel to arrive at the legal minimum. In addition, if the pilots determine that (despite having the legally required amount) they would prefer extra fuel, they will coordinate with dispatch and ground operations to acquire the amount deemed necessary. In all instances, the captain has the final authority for the flight’s operation.

Equipment (Inoperative/Restrictions on Use/ MELs)

Due to the vast amount of equipment carried aboard commercial aircraft, it’s extremely common to have certain items inoperative on any given flight. For such instances, the airline has a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved list, called a Minimum Equipment List (MEL), which specifies items that may be inoperative under certain conditions. Any inoperative equipment will be listed on the flight release. The pilots must then refer to the aircraft’s MEL, determine possible effects of the inoperative equipment, establish how long the equipment has been inoperative, note how long the equipment may legally remain inoperative, and verify that any necessary placards/maintenance forms have been properly completed. If any inoperative equipment threatens the safety/legality of the flight, the crew must request maintenance be performed or a new aircraft be provided before beginning the flight. In some instances, the flight will be delayed or canceled while maintenance is performed.

Airline pilots are responsible for overseeing every aspect of the flights they operate. The flight release is the main document that facilitates coordination of all requisite tasks. Through the release, the pilots can assess the demands of the upcoming flight and take all necessary measures to ensure the safety of their passengers.



Last time, we highlighted many of the cockpit tasks airline pilots perform prior to each departure. In this post, we’ll head outside the airplane to examine the external aircraft walkaround. This preflight procedure is equally important to all pre-takeoff cockpit checks and is a mandatory part of each flight leg. Through the walkaround, pilots are able to further enhance the safety and comfort of their passengers.

Why the Walkaround?

Throughout the aviation industry, safety is the paramount concern. Much of the airline industry’s stellar safety record is achieved through minimizing/eliminating foreseeable risks. The external aircraft preflight is a highly effective method of risk minimization. Unlike with ground-bound modes of transport, aviators can’t just pull over to the side of the road in the event a mechanical issue arises. For this reason, a detailed examination of the aircraft’s structure and systems is necessary to reduce the chances of an in-flight malfunction.

Tires and Landing Gear

Though used for only a fraction of each flight, the landing gear system is a vitally important safety component. Think about it: airliners are multi-ton monoliths larger than most houses. Additionally, even at their relatively slow approach speeds, they’re still travelling faster than anyone outside of the NASCAR circuit ever drives. The stress of several landings a day means the landing gear and tires have to be ridiculously tough to handle those weights and speeds. A malfunction here could make for a very memorable landing.

On the walkaround, pilots observe such factors as the tread, inflation, and wear of the tires. They’ll also examine gear struts, hydraulic lines, brake components, nuts/bolts/fasteners, and anything else noteworthy for their model. Anything appearing out of the ordinary will be addressed before the crew will consider departure.


As you’ve probably guessed, the powerplant is the heart of the plane. Without fully functioning engines, a state-of-the-art airliner becomes a very expensive glider. To avoid this undesirable possibility; pilots look for leaks, signs of scorching, evidence of foreign object damage (FOD), worn/overstressed components, and anything else that appears irregular. In some cases, maintenance personnel assist with the inspection, due in part to the engines’ often-unreachable height. These external inspections are then cross-referenced with cockpit indications to ensure full engine functionality. In case you’re wondering; all commercial aircraft are rigorously tested and certified capable of taking off, flying, and landing with an inoperable engine. Should an unlikely engine failure occur, the other engine(s) are capable of sustaining flight.



Despite their massive size, at times airliners can be difficult to see; especially under low visibility conditions and at night. In these instances, external lights go a long way towards helping the aircraft show up. Navigation lights and anti-collision lights are among the most common lights used to make the aircraft stand out. On the walkaround, pilots check to ensure these required lights are operational.

Additionally, at night and during low visibility conditions, external lights greatly assist the pilots in seeing the airport environment. Landing lights and taxi lights are the most common lights that aid in seeing outside the aircraft. For winter weather, some planes have ice lights, which assist the crew in detecting ice accumulation on the wings. Pilots verify proper operation of these external lights when conducting the exterior preflight.


Throughout the walkaround, the pilots inspect the various sections of the airframe. From nose to tail, they look at the fuselage, wings, and empennage for any indication of damage or defects. Depending on the airplane model, other items that might be scrutinized include: flaps, spoilers, ailerons, static wicks, static ports, pitot tubes, antennas, radar pods, pneumatic deice boots, and countless other model-specific parts. Any components appearing suspect are further evaluated to ensure safe operation.

The demanding environment in which airliners operate requires all systems to perform flawlessly. An external preflight inspection helps pilots detect possible deficiencies and minimize the chance of malfunctions aloft. Through their preflight walkarounds, pilots are able to reduce risk and enhance the safety of their passengers.


            In the previous few posts, we discussed the internal and external preflight inspections airline pilots conduct prior to departure. In addition to those important tasks, pilots must coordinate with a variety of support crews to ensure the aircraft is ready for pushback. While these support teams are largely capable of completing their respective tasks independently, the captain is ultimately responsible for assuring that each team’s operations are conducted safely and legally.

Flight Attendants

For airline passengers, the cabin crewmembers are the most visible support staff. Flight attendants (FAs) are responsible for taking care of nearly all passenger needs. In addition to serving snacks and beverages, FAs supervise passenger safety. In this role, they conduct a thorough safety briefing, confirm that all passengers are wearing safety belts, make sure carryon luggage is properly stowed, and attend to special needs passengers. Additionally, cabin crewmembers conduct the passenger count and make sure it matches the flight’s manifest. At some airlines, FAs assist with weight & balance calculations. As a passenger, the cabin crewmembers will be your point of contact once you’ve boarded the aircraft.

Gate Agents

Think of gate agents as the pre-boarding flight attendants. They’ll be your point of contact for all matters prior to boarding and after deplaning. In their role, gate personnel oversee the boarding process and ensure only ticketed passengers enter the plane. They confer with the pilots & FAs to verify their passenger count matches the number of travelers aboard. Gate agents also make arrangements for special needs passengers (arranging for wheelchairs, interpreters, etc.) and chaperone unaccompanied minors (UMs). Should you miss a connection or lose your luggage, the gate personnel are the people who will sort out the mess. In their role, gate agents greatly assist the crew by streamlining the boarding process to the furthest extent possible.

Baggage Handlers

Baggage handlers do more than just load your luggage. They assist the pilots in keeping the plane within its weight & balance limits. Rather than just blindly tossing bags into the cargo hold, baggage handlers maintain a precise record of exactly what goes into each cargo bay. This includes regular size bags, oversize luggage, and sometimes hazardous materials (HAZMAT). They ensure that everything loaded into the plane is properly secured and may legally be carried. At times, it’s necessary to rearrange or offload cargo to remain within weight & balance limits. While the pilots ultimately determine what must be done, the baggage crew carries out the request to load the aircraft within the proper parameters.


Ground Crew

Ground personnel carry out the fueling of the airplane. After the pilots & dispatchers determine the requisite fuel load, the ground crew uploads the proper amount of fuel to the aircraft. During winter, they also apply deicing fluid to remove ice & snow from the plane. Additionally, the ground crew loads water, food, and beverages onto the aircraft. When it’s time for pushback, they operate the tug that moves the plane away from the gate and maintain proper clearance from obstacles around the plane. Upon arrival at the destination, ground personnel guide the plane into the gate. For both departure and arrival, the ground crew are the people who connect the plane with the terminal.

Company Operations

Company Ops are the people on the other end of the microphone. In addition to recording the arrival & departure times, they coordinate their airline’s flights with all ground support teams. When the pilots request fuel, deicing, maintenance, baggage, or assistance with passenger needs, Ops personnel pass the request along to the appropriate team. They also keep the crew apprised of any delays or updates relevant to the flight. Of all the ground-based crews, Ops is the team that brings everything together.

As you can see, each airline flight requires a significant amount of planning and input before it’s ready to leave the gate. While the captain is ultimately responsible for the safety and legality of the entire operation, the various support teams play an integral part in preparing the flight for departure. The next time you have a hassle-free airline experience, remember the part the supporting crews play in its outcome.


Let’s be real, no one looks forward to airline food, no matter how much wine they’ve consumed before it is served.


However, enjoying a great pre-departure meal is very easy if you’re departing from Washington Dulles, as the airport offers over 10 different restaurants with International cuisine.


Here are five of our favorites…


Vino Volo- IAD Concourse C/Gate C3 and Concourse B/Gate B63

Price: $$$

Details: “Vino Volo” is loosely translated as “Wine Flight” in English, and that is the perfect name for these self named “post-security retreats” located exclusively in select US airports, and fortunately there is one at IAD airport. The locations offer an impressive collection of hand-selected wines and themed wine flights. In addition, passengers can enjoy elegant small plates, artesian meats and cheeses or their signature dish of smoked salmon and crabmeat crostini.

The combination of great wines, cozy leather lounge chairs and impeccable service makes this the ideal pre-departure meeting spot.


Matsutake Sushi and Hibachi- IAD Concourse A/Gate 18

Price: $

It’s always a sensory delight to dine at a Japanese sushi and hibachi restaurant, and Matsutake Sushi and Hibachi in Washington Dulles airport is no exception. Travelers may find it difficult to walk past the smells of simmering teriyaki and the rhythmic sounds of fresh vegetables being precisely chopped for hand crafted sushi rolls…definitely unexpected from airport fare. Follow your meal with a cup of sake or an Asian beer, and you are cleared for takeoff.


Jose Cuervo Tequileria- IAD Concourse B/Gate 38

Price: $$

Details: At the Washington Dulles location, you can enjoy an authentic Mexican breakfast, lunch or dinner, followed by a top-shelf margarita made from one of the many tequilas of Jose Cuervo fame. The menu features a great selection of Latin fare…and you can dine on the mild-side or go as spicy as you like. Enjoy your meal in the sit-down dining area, or strike up a pre-departure conversation over cocktails at the full-service bar.



Firkin and Fox- IAD Concourse C/Gate 22

Price: $$

Details: If British pubs are your “thing”, the Dulles airport Firkin and Fox is perfect for you. This restaurant features everything you’ve come to expect from these familiar establishments…great food and of course, beer. At the Dulles airport location, you can dine on fish and chips, burgers, salads, cottage pie and other selections from their full menu of pub favorites.



Chipotle- IAD Concourse B/Gate 54

Price: $

Details: This is the perfect place for a quick meal before leaving IAD or to grab the ideal carry-on cuisine. You can choose from freshly prepared handcrafted burritos (filled to capacity with the ingredients of your choice), tacos, rice bowls (they now offer brown rice) and salads that have the same fillings as the burritos…minus the tortilla wrapper. The guacamole is made fresh several times a day, and the cilantro-lime rice is a great accent to all of their selections. If you happen to bring your meal onboard, be prepared for the envy of your seatmate.






You’ve been sitting in the gate area at Washington Dulles for the past two hours when you hear those dreaded words…


“Ladies and Gentleman, Flight 365 is cancelled due to a mechanical problem. Please line up at the gate, and we will book you on the next available flight.”


Just great.


You merge gracefully into the stampede of frantic passengers who are at present, charging toward the harried looking gate agent who has had it up-to-here, and is ready to tell all the passengers to go you-know-where.


And alas, since you were one of the last of the herd, the “next” available flight leaving IAD airport (with an open seat for you) is the following day…at 3:00PM.


Now, we all know that Washington DC is a fantastic place…the National Mall, a complete host of museums, restaurants, great entertainment (even in non-election years) and several other activities to fill the time during your unplanned layover.


All of this would be great if you were at Reagan, which just happens to be right next to all of the fun.


But you’re at Dulles…30 miles away from the action, and you’ll only have a few hours to kill…hours that you don’t want to spend in yet another hotel bar paying $12.00 for a six ounce brew, and you definitely don’t want to spend all of it in the maddening DC traffic.


But, is there anything to do near Dulles?


Never fear, iFly to the rescue. We have for you, our weary travelers…


5 Things To Do Near Washington Dulles Airport (IAD)




There is nothing like a little retail therapy to ease the pain of strandedness. Near Dulles you have two main options:


Reston Town Center

Distance from IAD: 6.0 mi http://www.restontowncenter.com/


This outdoor location offers over 50 stores, 30 restaurants, a huge movie theater, festivals year round and an ice-skating rink in the wintertime; a perfect place to spend a few hours and relax.




Dulles Town Center

Distance from IAD: 7.5 mi http://www.shopdullestowncenter.com/


This is your “Mall of Malls”. It is a 1.4 million square foot facility that boasts 185 fine retailers, 5 department stores, 23 quick food providers and 10 sit down restaurants. You may end up needing another suitcase if you spend your layover here.


1. EAT


My motto? “Will fly for food.”


Only because I am a crewmember.


Perhaps yours can be “Can’t fly, need food.”


Well the Dulles airport corridor has plenty of great eats, all within a two mile radius. Choose any of these establishments to satiate your cravings:


Hama Sushi (0.9 mi)

Minerva (0.9 mi)

Bertucci’s (1.1 mi)

Charlie Chiangs Herndon (1.4 mi)

Pei Wei Asian Diner (1.6 mi)

Zeffirelli Ristorante (2.2 mi)

Angeethi (2.3 mi)

The Tortilla Restaurant  (2.3 mi)

 Lone Star Steakhouse & Saloon (2.5 mi)





National Air and Space Museum-Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center

Distance from IAD: 5.4mi



Everyone knows about the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall, and if you ever find yourself visiting (read: stranded) at Dulles again with a longer stay, this place is a must-see.


However, coming in at a close second is the National Air and Space Museum-Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center.


Basically, the Smithsonian had an overflow of items in the air and space category, so they opened this facility to showcase the excess…combined, the two locations showcase the largest collection of aviation and space related artifacts on the planet.





Dulles Golf Center and Sports Park Distance from IAD: 6.8mi




Take out your stress on a golf ball or baseball at this location; which has been voted among the top 100 golf ranges in the country. The location features heated driving range stalls, power tees, beach volleyball, miniature golf, batting cages…you name it. Blow off some steam here…not when you finally board your flight leaving IAD airport.




Frying Pan Park/Farm Distance from IAD: 4.0mi



Take off the suit and get your hands dirty…Frying Pan Park offers a complete 180 from the frenzied terminals of Dulles at their rural heritage demonstration farm. You can meet draft horses, cows, pigs, chickens, take a wagon ride and watch farm hands work just as they would have in the 1930‘s. Seems like an idyllic scene doesn’t it? Until the quiet is shattered when the plane you were supposed to be on flies overhead.


So Washington Dulles is not a horrible place for that unplanned layover, and you don’t have to go all the way into the “District” for some great layover diversions. Sometimes the best life has to offer is found in that unexpected stop.


Enjoy your journey.





Free WiFi   – Washington Dulles offers travelers free Wi-Fi throughout all terminals, just use the “Dulles Airport” SSID for access. Other “for-pay” wireless services are still available for travelers.


International Departures – Dulles is definitely the airport of choice for international departures out of the Washington DC metropolitan area…the only international flights allowed out of DCA are to Canada and select Caribbean destinations.


More Parking Options – Parking at any airport can be a challenge, but with some pre-planning and research, parking at Dulles Airport can be surprisingly simple. Dulles offers onsite long term and short term parking, handicapped parking facilities, valet parking services and remote economy lots with free shuttles. Outside parking vendors offer remote economy parking that you can pre-pay online, and several hotels in the vicinity offer discounted parking or stay and park packages.



No rail access (yet) – Dulles airport is not connected to the Washington DC Metro rail system, so right now, it is only accessible by car, bus or taxi. There are several affordable options for shared airport transportation if you don’t want to drive your own vehicle or to shell out parking fees. However, construction is underway for the “Silver Line” (otherwise known as the long-awaited railway system to Dulles) which will make access much more convenient.


Not easy to navigate – To state that Washington Dulles is busy is an understatement; with more than 21,000 departures and 1.5 million passengers a month to contend with, getting to your gate on time can be a real challenge. In 2006, the airport discontinued the mobile lounge transportation system and introduced the AeroTrain; an inter-terminal train that services the A, B and C gates. The AeroTrain does facilitate movement throughout the airport, but arriving early and allowing additional time to get through the airport is still the best practice.


Over 25 miles from downtown Washington D.C. – Although IAD airport services the nation’s capital, it is not close to the center of the action. Fortunately, the city is easy to get to, and there are several transportation options available to travelers; including, shuttle services, tour busses and limousines.


In our last look at turbulence, we discussed the various forms of low-level turbulence; bumpiness found below approximately 15,000 ft. With this post, we’ll cover causes of high-altitude roughness. As an airline passenger, most of your travel time will be spent in high-altitude cruise. Turbulence encountered during this stage of flight will likely last longer than most low-level turbulence experienced after takeoff and on the landing approach. We’ll also discuss turbulence common in mountainous areas. Once you’re familiar with the characteristics of these forms of turbulence, you’ll be better able to understand when, where, and how long such turbulence is likely to last.

Clear Air Turbulence (CAT)

While clear air turbulence can occur at any altitude, it is most common above 15,000 ft. CAT is the result of airflow from different directions and/or of differing speeds converging. At higher altitudes, CAT is often found in or near the jet stream. Depending on the route & altitude of flight, CAT can persist for hundreds of miles.

Detecting it:  Probable areas of clear air turbulence can often be determined before the flight takes off. Pilots and dispatchers refer to winds & temperatures aloft forecasts and reports to determine wind speed & direction at various altitudes. If wind direction and speed change significantly over small changes in altitude, that’s a sure sign of possible turbulence. The greater the variation, the stronger likelihood of turbulence.

Additionally, airline crews examine Pilot Reports (PIREPS) filed by other pilots. PIREPS are possibly the most valuable resource for locating turbulence, as other planes are reporting the exact location, altitude, and intensity of roughness aloft. With weather forecasts, the best pilots can do is guesstimate where/when/how strong turbulence might be found. PIREPS are available via aviation weather sources, or they can be relayed directly to airliners by air traffic controllers (ATC).

Avoiding CAT:  As you might imagine, no one wants to fly through turbulence if it’s avoidable. Pilots and dispatchers consider weather reports/forecasts and PIREPS when determining the route & altitude for flight. In some cases, changing altitude or varying the route will avoid the most turbulent areas.  At other times, CAT is so pervasive that the only option is to ride out the bumps.

Mountain Wave Turbulence

As the name implies, mountain wave turbulence is found near mountainous terrain. This form of turbulence results from air being disrupted as it flows over (perpendicular to) mountains. Think of it as mechanical turbulence (see previous post) on steroids. The disrupting peaks cause the air to undulate on the downwind side of the range(s). With strong winds, these oscillations can persist for over 100 miles and cause severe turbulence.

Detecting it:  For flights traversing mountainous areas, pilots and dispatchers will look at wind reports and forecasts for the upwind side of the range(s). Speeds above 40 knots are most conducive to mountain waves. Below 25 knots, this possibility diminishes. With widespread light & variable winds, mountain wave turbulence is a nonissue.

In addition, mountain wave turbulence can often be located by noting unique cloud formations. Rotor clouds and lenticular clouds (Google them for some great images) can form below and above the wave crests respectively when sufficient moisture is present. Cap clouds, which form above mountain peaks, can also signify mountain waves.

Avoiding Mountain Waves:  If you fly over flatlands, mountain wave turbulence is a nonissue. For flights near high terrain, staying at least 3,000-5,000 ft. above the peaks is generally effective to overfly any hazards. Most commercial flights will be well above these altitudes. For takeoffs & landings at mountainous airports, crews monitor weather reports/forecasts, PIREPS, and ATC updates. They also plan climbs & descents to avoid the most hazardous areas. In extreme cases, they’ll delay/cancel the flight in the interest of safety.

When it comes to turbulence, airline crews go to great lengths to avoid or minimize bumpiness for their passengers. If safety is an issue, pilots have no trouble postponing the flight to await favorable conditions. As an airline passenger, any turbulence you experience is likely unavoidable and not considered hazardous. Though annoying, consider in-flight turbulence a small price to pay to arrive safely at your destination.


You’re boarding the plane, and the flight attendant’s voice pipes through the overhead speaker with that rarely-listened-to phrase…


“Ladies and Gentleman, as you board today, please move into your row before stowing your bags to allow the passengers behind you to board.”


Five minutes later, the same voice (a bit less patient this time) comes over the PA again and says, “Ladies and Gentleman, there are several other passengers standing in the jetway, please step into your row before stowing your bags, as this will expedite the boarding process…”


Now, you have two options…you can stow, or step in your row.


Let’s say you decide to step into your row.


Surprisingly enough, this has some negatives. As you obey the rules, the other passengers put their bags in the overhead above YOUR seat, thereby taking your overhead bin space and subjecting you to the dreaded and despised realm of gate checking your bag.


Also, you have to maneuver your overstuffed bag into the row, which means you have to pick it up and put those wheels in the very seat you will be sitting in for the next 5 hours. This of course, after you have just rolled it all over the airport, and through a petri dish of unknown flora and fauna…otherwise known as the airport bathroom.


And what if you were just lucky enough to be the first person in your row? Now you have to either put your bag BACK into the aisle to allow your row buddy in, or you have to contort yourself by flattening your body like a gecko against said bag to allow passage into your row. Hopefully, you and your row buddy have “compatible dimensions” or this maneuver can become very interesting….


Meanwhile, some of my flying partners (because I would NEVER do this) are standing in the back galley, watching it all unfold and biting the inside of their cheeks to keep from laughing hysterically at the scene. We, I mean, “other” flight attendants only do this for a minute or two before fighting our way upstream (Alaskan Salmon style) to come help with the stowing process.


Is there any hope? Why do airlines even ask passengers to do this? How can we, passengers and crew, work together to improve this process?


To put my two cents in, I want to give you some background information to consider…



In initial training, we saw this chart, which was based on FAA studies about the stress levels of crew during pre-departure activities. For some reason, even after over a decade of flying, the memory of this chart has never left me. Here is my interpretation of what I saw so many years ago:




What? That doesn’t look official to you?


As you can clearly see, your crew doesn’t enjoy dealing with bags just as much as you don’t. If we had it our way, there would be enough overhead space for everyone’s bags, umbrellas, coats, gifts, sombreros, pets, golf clubs, kayaks, kitchen sinks and whatever else you passengers feel like bringing onboard.


But alas, we don’t.


So to make things go a little more smoothly, you can try boarding like crew members do when we are using the travel benefits our friends are always asking us to share. Here is what I do…


  1. Pre-boarding prep:  As soon as you line up to board (when your section is called of course) remove the stuff you need from your carry-on, and hold it in your hand.
  2. When you get to your row, toss said stuff in the seat, and in the same motion, toss bag into overhead bin wheels first, and quickly step into your row. Whew…now you’re out of the aisle.
  3. If you have two carry-ons (GASP!) Place the smaller of the two under the seat in front of you. Don’t be a bin-hog. Next time, if you can, just bring one.
  4. Sit down, close eyes, wait for movie and vodka cart, beverage cart.


That’s how I do it…when I am off-duty of course.


If you are really interested in this stuff, take a look at this link about airplane boarding, it’s pretty informative.


Safe travels!



To Lean or Not to Lean…Should there Be a Question?


I have to admit, I really can’t stand it when someone leans his or her seat back onboard an airplane. When I am traveling in economy and seated in front of someone, I rarely do it…when I do, I do what I call the “press-n-tap.” Simply put, the “press-n-tap” is when I press the little silver button, tap back on my seat lightly and whatever I get is whatever I get. It usually gives me a few microns of recline.


However, if you are the leaning type-and you have every right to be-here is what your crew is thinking about when we tell you shortly after takeoff to “sit back, relax and enjoy your flight.”


First, we are hoping and praying that you don’t really, “sit back”.


We hope this for a number of reasons. The main reason is a little something I call “passenger harmony”.  We don’t expect every flight to include a rousing rendition of Kumbaya and group hugs, but we also don’t need anyone getting angry onboard. This probably goes without saying, but post 9/11 we are extremely cautious about passenger behavior. Some may say overly cautious, but I don’t care…I believe it is better to err on the side of extremism in this area. Take a look at these links for seat recline rage stories…









We also don’t want to have to ask you twice to raise your seat. Twice, you ask? Yes, because when we get close to landing, we will politely ask you to please, “return your tray tables and seatbacks to their full upright position.” Some of you will do this, some of you won’t (you know who you are).


Then, we tell you “flight attendants will be coming through the cabin to complete their final safety checks”(yes, another cue). Some of you will take heed, some of you won’t. And of course, if a passenger happens to be sleeping, the wake-up process necessary to complete this safety check is a completely different matter…


Your flight attendants would much rather be doing something else.


In my own personal experience, I have witnessed the emotional gamut played out when it comes to the seat recline practice. I have seen passengers simply ask the person to raise it a bit; I have seen passengers immediately press the flight attendant call button to tattle on the leaning offender, I have seen passengers become absolutely irate when someone leans their seat back. And then there was the complete meltdown I witnessed (literally and figuratively) when a passenger leaned his seat back so violently that it jarred the piping hot coffee that was on the passengers tray seated behind him, spilling the coffee all over the passenger and his tablet computer, frying it…and ruining what was apparently a very important report.


So clearly, there are very different “leaning” styles. Which made me come up with this while sitting on the jumpseat…


The “What Kind of Leaner are You” Quiz


Examine the following statements, and choose which one best describes you…


A. I feel sooo guilty when I lean my seat back, therefore I will sit completely upright from New York to Sydney. No, its fine really, my spine surgery went well, and I have plenty of pain medicine, so I can make it. I can’t feel my legs right now, but it’s fine…no really, I am ok.


B. I just leaned a little bit…did she notice? Let me just try a little bit more now…can she tell? Maybe I will wait about five more minutes and see if I can get away with it again…


C. Ahhhh, I can finally take a nap for an hour, let me lean my seat back here. (An hour later…) Ok, gotta work, so let me sit up and get to work. (Fifteen minutes later…) Whooo, I just wrote a paragraph. I am exhausted…maybe another nap would help. Let me lean back here for just a few minutes. (Two hours later…) Just great, I missed the beverages and snacks, let me sit up straight and ring my call button to get a drink. Wait? Is that the landing gear I hear? Oh! Better lean back one more time then for a pre-landing nap!


D. I paid $499 for this ticket and I own this aircraft. [DING, calling the flight attendant] I want an extra snack bag, [DING] I want a blanket, [DING}I want the whole can of soda, [DING] and another cup of ice. [DING] Are there any snacks left? [DING] What time are we landing? What, I can’t believe she told me to take my seat because the pilot just told us there will be turbulence and we need to buckle up….who does she think she is? I paid $499 for this seat, and I will go to the bathroom when I damn well please. I will never fly this airline again. Is that someone behind me? Well they better get ready because I’m getting all the space I deserve…timberrrrr!


Drumroll please…The results…


If you choose A, you are a FAT Leaner. Don’t; get mad, FAT is an acronym for Fear and Trepidation. Of course, if you are fat, you have “No Lean”. Ok, it’s cheesy, but you get it. Basically, you don’t want to recline your seat under any circumstances; I’m the same way.


If you choose B, you are a Stealth Leaner. The passenger who inches a little at first, then more, then a little more…perhaps thinking that the person behind you won’t notice your stealthy encroachment upon their space. Nice try, but believe me, they can tell.


If you choose C, you are a Wimbledon Leaner. You move your seat back then straight, back than straight, back then straight, [repeat] throughout the whole flight. Anyone who watches you feels like they are watching a tennis match. Your activity leaves the person behind you paranoid and traumatized by the end of the flight…they have no idea what to expect.


If you choose D, you are the Shock and Awe Leaner. You put everything into your recline… You lean back all the way, using the full force of your body, and you make sure to do it during the beverage service. Your recline is an explosive, knee crushing, drink spilling, paper fluttering, anger inducing disaster…and you don’t even care.


Now that you know what kind of seat leaner you are, there are a few simple universal rules for being a more accommodating onboard citizen, and for contributing to “passenger harmony”…


Onboard Leaning for Dummies….


Look at seat maps and learn which airlines or aircraft types have the best seat pitch. For longer flights, try to choose those.


You have a right to lean back, let go of the guilt!


Ask first.




Be reasonable, if the person behind you is tall, pregnant, holding a baby, working on the computer, etc. decrease your recline angle.


Try not to recline if food is involved.


If you plan to lean, and if the aircraft is not full (and the crew permits), ask to move to a seat with no one in the seat behind you.


Leaning your seat back on an RJ (regional jet) is just unfair. Period.